News Release

Internet Economy Generates $507 billion and 2.3 Million Jobs, Grows 68 Percent, University of Texas/Cisco Study Finds

Complete results of the study SAN JOSE, Calif. - October 27,
Oct 27, 1999

SAN JOSE, Calif. - October 27, 1999 - The Internet Economy grew 68 percent from the first quarter of 1998 to the first quarter of 1999, pumping an estimated $507 billion into the U.S. economy and employing 2.3 million Americans, according to a University of Texas study released today by Cisco Systems, Inc.

The sweeping study, the second measurement of the Internet Economy by University of Texas economists, found that:

  • The Internet Economy grew from $64 billion in the first three months of 1998 to $108 billion in the first three months of 1999, an increase of 68 percent.
  • The Internet Economy, up from $301 billion in calendar year 1998 to an estimated $507 billion for 1999, today generates more annual revenue than such entrenched American industries as telecommunications ($300 billion) and airlines ($355 billion).
  • E-commerce, the amount of business conducted directly on the Internet, increased 127 percent from the first quarter of 1998 to the first quarter of 1999.
  • Of 3,400 businesses surveyed to measure the size of the Internet Economy, more than one third did not exist before 1996. Those new businesses now employ 305,000 people.

The complete results of the study, which was performed by the Center for Research in Electronic Commerce at the University of Texas's Graduate School of Business, can be found at

"The fact that the Internet Economy rose so much in just one year underscores that companies are embracing the Internet and that an Internet Revolution is reshaping the economic landscape," said John Chambers, president and CEO of Cisco Systems.

"What is clear from our research is that the Internet Economy is an economic phenomenon never seen before," said Dr. Anitesh Barua, who along with Dr. Andrew Whinston headed the University of Texas research team that performed the study. "We are pleased to partner with Cisco to study this remarkable new economy."

The Internet Indicators

The 1999 Internet Indicators study builds on the first comprehensive survey of the Internet Economy, which was performed last year by Dr. Barua's and Dr. Whinston's team and sponsored by Cisco. The study shows how the Internet is transforming the U.S. economy by dividing the Internet Economy into four segments and measuring the economic impact of each. The four are:

  • Internet Infrastructure
    Businesses that make or operate the Internet's essential hardware and equipment: worldwide connection networks, or backbones; Internet Service Providers (ISPs); makers of networking hardware and software; personal computer manufacturers, etc.

  • Internet Network Applications Infrastructure
    Businesses that develop new uses for the Internet or connect new users to the Internet: makers of on-line search engine software; consultants and providers or Internet skills training; developers of multimedia applications and other applications, etc.

  • Internet Intermediaries
    Third-party businesses that use the Internet to link customers with products or services produced by others: operators of Internet portals; content providers for Internet sites; on-line travel agents or stock brokers, etc.

  • Internet Commerce
    Businesses that sell their own products directly through the internet: Internet retailers of many types; Internet sites that earn revenue from subscriptions or fees; on-line advertising firms, etc.

The Internet Indicators study is based on an unprecedented survey of more than 3,400 U.S. companies that generated some or all of their revenues from products or services related directly to the Internet.

All the companies surveyed derived some portion of their revenues directly from the Internet. The study did not include companies that had indirect links to the Internet, such as professional services or utilities companies that serve Internet businesses. Data for the study was compiled from commercially available business research reports, Securities and Exchange Commission disclosures, product literature and commercial Web sites.

The Internet Indicators study was underwritten by Cisco Systems Inc.

Cisco Systems

Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) is theworldwide leader in networking for the Internet.

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